The countries most affected by the effects of climate change will be low-lying countries, which are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But prosperous nations, like the United States, are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly, and the impoverished – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. President George H.W. Bush joined the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, more than other heads of state and government, in adopting a series of international environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC. The president then ratified the UNFCCC with the Council and approval from the U.S. Senate, and the agreement has since been approved by virtually every nation on earth. In its first progress report, the IPCC concludes that humanity`s emissions are increasing the natural component of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It stresses the importance of climate change as a challenge for international cooperation to address its consequences. The report therefore plays a crucial role in paving the way for the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Since 1992, when the United Nations recognized climate change as a serious problem, negotiations between countries have resulted in remarkable agreements, including the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. But leaders are struggling to maintain momentum and not slow the rise in global temperatures.
The Paris Agreement on Climate Change is the first universal and legally binding global climate agreement. The aim of the agreement is to keep the rise in global temperatures well below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while limiting the rise to 1.5 degrees. The agreement aims to ensure that global greenhouse gas emissions reach their peak as quickly as possible and offset emissions and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of this century. The agreement also addresses climate change adaptation, financial and other assistance to developing countries, technology transfer and capacity building, and loss and damage. In 2004, COP 10 was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The parties have begun to discuss options for adaptation. The parties “considered and adopted numerous decisions and conclusions on issues related to technology development and transfer; land use, land-use change and forestry; the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC; the national communication of [industrialized countries]; Capacity-building; accommodation and response measures; and Article 6 of the UNFCCC (education, training and public awareness), which addresses adaptation and reduction issues, the needs of least developed countries (LDCs) and future strategies to combat climate change. It is now an integral part of the political agenda, and in 2019 the House of Commons declared a “climate emergency.” .